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22 Vows Acknowledgement  | Buddhism  DedicationDr Ambedkar Movie  |  Education

TEN PARAMITA 

(TEN VIRTUES)

 

The Paramita means perfection or Virtues. It means reaching other shore (enlightenment) as contrasted with this shore of suffering and morality. The paramitas are usually six in number (charity, discipline, forbearance, energy, concentration and lastly wisdom) or expanded to ten (adding expedients, vows, power and knowledge). The Paramitas are the ten stages of spiritual perfection followed by the Bodhisattava in his progress to Buddhahood. They include the practice and highest possible development of charity morality, forbearance, zeal, meditation and wisdom. The following four are sometimes added: skillful means of teaching, power over obstacles, spiritual aspirations and knowledge, these last four being however, regarded as amplifications of Panna or wisdom.  Everyone must strive to achieve these noble qualities in life to progressively move towards achieving Nirvana.

The paramitas constitute an important teaching of the Prajnaparamita Sutras, as which the Diamond and the Hear Sutras are summaries.

The ten paramitas are listed below:-

 

Pali                               

English Translation

1

Dana

Generosity

2

Moral Discipline

Shila

3

Kshanti

Patience and tolerance

4

Panna

Wisdom or (full-) consciousness

5

Viriya

Energy

6

Nekkhamma

Renunciation

7

Sacca

Truthfulness

8

Adhisthana

Determination

9

Metta

Loving kindness

10

Upekka

Equanimity

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